During the Third Reich occupation of The Netherlands, Major General Kussin was made the Stadtkommandant Arnheim, the commandant of the German garrison in Arnhem.
 


Generalmajor der Infanterie Friedrich Kussin
Born on the 1st of March 1895
in Aurich, Niedersachsen, Germany

On Sunday September 17th 1944 he had heard about the Airborne landings North West of the city for which he was responsible. He and his staff drove in their staff car, a camouflage painted Citroen, probably confiscated in France, to the Head Quarters of "SS-Haupsturmfuhrer" (Major) Josef 'Sepp' Krafft, commanding the SS-Panzer Grenadier Depot und Reserve Battaljon 16, an armored-infantry battalion. He arrived at Krafft's HQ in the Hotel Wolfheze at 17.15 hours. Krafft gave Kussin the latest intelligence and the Stadtkommandant asked of Krafft's Battalion to show all endurance possible for the upcoming battle. Kussin left via the same way he came, much to the reluctance of Krafft's staff.

 

Coming onto the junction of Wolfhezer Weg and Utrechtse Weg he and his staff ran into advancing British paratroopers.

 

This is the account of the officer in charge of the leading British platoon, Lieutenant James Arthur Stacey Cleminson
of No.5 Platoon, "B" Company, 3rd Parachute Battalion:

 

"The platoon had been selected to lead the 3rd Battalion's march to Arnhem, and for the first two hours they made good progress, scouting ahead of the main force. As they approached Battalion Krafft's blocking line east of Wolfheze, a German Citroen staff car suddenly appeared at a junction in between the platoon's positions, prompting these units to open fire with rifles and sten guns, killing all inside. So enthusiastic had been the firing that both vehicle and passengers were riddled with bullets and it took Cleminson's intervention to get his men to cease fire. This prize put the platoon on a high. Cleminson did not discover until after the war that his men had killed General Friedrich Kussin, the German commander of the Arnhem area. He had been visiting Krafft when he unwisely decided to return to the town and his own headquarters."
 

The account of another eye-witness, Staff-Sergeant John Oliver McGeough, a glider pilot with "C" Squadron, No.2 Wing:

 

"The following morning [Monday, September 18th 1944, Battle Detective.com]we continued towards Oosterbeek and at the junction of Wolfheze Weg and Utrechtseweg saw the first German dead. A staff car (a camouflaged Citroen) had come down the road from Wolfheze and had been shot up by men of the 2nd Parachute Btn at about 1600 hrs on Sunday afternoon. Major General Kussin, German field commander at Arnhem and three others in the car were on a reconnaissance mission and were unlucky to be spotted by the parachutists. Shortly after leaving the scene of the ambush we reached the Hartenstein Hotel at Oosterbeek and there I was to remain for the rest of the battle."
 

The shot-up car of the Ortskommandant Arnheim was filmed by members of the Army Film and Photograph Unit:

Location of the incident
This is the junction on a period map:

In the Netherlands Institute for Military History in The Hague in The Netherlands we found the Allied Intelligence translation of the 16th SS Armored Grenadier Reserve Battalion and Depot's "Kriegstagesbuch" (War Diary, or After Action Report).
On page 8 the violent death of Arnhem's Ortskommandant is described:

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This is what the junction looked like in 1973, when reporters of After The battle Magazine; visited the scene:
 

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Page 14 of After The Battle Magazine, Battle of Arnhem Special Edition

This is what the junction looks like today. The orange pylons in the middle of the junction indicate approximately where General Kussin's car was stopped in a hail of bullets:

 

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Who dunnit?
The shooting up of General-Major Friedrich Kussin's staff car and its occupants has always been attributed to
men of No.5 Platoon, "B" Company, 3rd Parachute Battalion. Individual shooters have never been identified although an attempt was made in this September 6th, 1979 article by author Chris Jongboer in the Oosterbeek periodical "Hoog en Laag" which is still published and circulated today:
 

"What was is with that German general?
In the memories of the airborne landing near Wolfheze which you could have read in "Hoog en Laag" of the past weeks, is described how the lieutenant Knottenbelt finds a German general, shot dead, at the corner of Wolfherzerweg and Utrechtseweg. It is interesting how a fact can start leading a life of its own and how certain affairs can be “claimed” by various people. Aside from Mr. Knottenbelt still others have been involved in the shootout and various people are known to me who claimed to have shot and killed the general.
During a visit to Scotland Yard in London I met Chief Inspector Percy Browne who had jumped into Arnhem as an Airborne trooper in 1944. He told me that he had taken part in the shootout.
A young soldier who, on the evening of the day of the landing, had come to my girlfriend on the Buunderkamp told there, that he had helped a German general to Kingdom come.
Meanwhile he showed a small kind of swagger stick decorated with gems that he had taken off the victim.
That adds up to three who has been involved.
Several years later I met an elderly Englishman in Wolfheze, accompanied by his wife.
As an Airborne-officer he had been dropped near Wolfheze, was now writing a book about his wartime
and visited the battlefields where he had fought. He also knew something about the shooting of a German general and liked to go to the place where it had happened. When we set off, his wife whispered to me: "
he doesn’t want to know it, but he has killed that general". That makes four.
With a foreign reporter, who wanted to write a story on crime in the Netherlands, but who made a special study of the Battle of Arnhem as a hobby, I visited the battlefields near Wolfheze, the cemetery and Arnhem Bridge.
In hotel Hartenstein we went for a cup of coffee.
A couple sat there, speaking English with each other, the man apparently of the age of a former Airborne trooper.
I asked him if he was an Airborne trooper and this seemed to be the fact. On my question if he knew about the general and who had etcetera, etcetera,……the story gets boring, he replied: Yes Sir, that was corporal …. (unfortunately I lost the name). He was killed in action and you can find his grave at the Airborne-cemetery”.
And that was the fifth.
It is very well possible, that they were all involved. In all likelihood even, who knows.
But dead he was; that general!


                                                                                                                 C.A. Jongboer"

From the Gelders Archief, Arnhem, Collection 2867 "Collectie L.P.J. Vroemen"
Item B5-324; article "Hoe zat het nou met die Duitse generaal?" in "Hoog en Laag"
of Thursday September 6th 1979, 49th year, number 36.

Significance of the incident
In 2014 computer scientists Marten Düring and Antal van den Bosch used the incident on “Kussin Junction” to describe multi-perspective event detection in texts by linking narratives referring to the same event based on references to location names.
On page 207 of their chapter 'Multi-perspective Event Detection in Texts Documenting the 1944 Battle of Arnhem" (in: "Text Mining. Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing", Chris Biemann, Alexander Mehler (eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-319-12654-8/978-3-319-12655-5)
they bring the essence of the event forward as follows:

"Consider the example depicted in Fig. 1. Each of the four source snippets 7 contains enough hints to group them together as referring to the same event: mentions of the location, the “Utrechtseweg” (Utrecht Road) near the village of “Wolfheze”, the date and time (as noted in a German war diary, translated to English by Allied Intelligence), and an annotated photo taken by an Allied photographer. Rather than merely providing parts of a story that can simply be concatenated, the aggregation of resources from different perspectives and a close look at what they depict helps us to reconstruct what happened. A key question with regard to this particular event is, why there was no attempt to arrest the high ranking Generalmajor Friedrich Kussin, who was in charge of all German troops in the Arnhem area. Additional research has revealed that Lieutenant Cleminson had simply failed to recognize Kussin.

7 The sources surrounding this example were researched by amateur historian Tom Timmermans (www.battledetective.com/Kussin_Junction.html) .
The event has also been described by professional historians in most historical reconstructions of Operation Market Garden including [4,263] (Cornelius Ryan (1995) A bridge too far, 1st edn. Simon & Schuster, New York)
.
 
UPDATE 27MAR2016:
The Dutch municipality of Renkum (Oosterbeek is within its jurisdiction) decided recently to refurbish "Kussin Junction" and install traffic lights.
This is what the crossroads of Wolfhezer Weg and Utrechtse Weg looks like today:
 

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UPDATE 16JUL2016:
Most publications have it that General Kussin had only two other passengers in his staff car on that fateful Sunday in 1944.
Historian Scott Revell has, however, established that next to the General, his driver Josef Willeke and interpreter Max Koester (himself born in Arnhem on 20OCT1903), another passenger rode along in the Citroen when it was shot up by British paras.
In "Airborne Magazine", the publication of the Association of Friends of the Airborne Museum Oosterbeek, Volume 3, No. 1, in the accompanying "Ministory 123", Part 2 of Revell's report titled "The death of a German General during the Battle of Arnhem" is published.
In it, Revell describes how he was able to purchase an obituary or "prayer card" of Unteroffiizier (Non Commissioned Officer) Willi Haupt who, according to the text on the card, had been the fourth occupant of the car.

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Front of the obituary card of NCO Willi Haupt

Pertaining to Haupt's military service and him being killed in action at Arnhem, the text on the card translates to:
"In the end he was deployed near Arnhem. Accompanying his commanding General he rode out on a reconnaissance mission together with two other comrades on the 17th of September 1944. He would not return from this journey. It was here where the deadly bullet hit him. The comrades succeeded in recovering the mortal remains and then they buried him with the General and both other soldiers on the Heroes Cemetery at Arnhem."
 
After World War Two ended, the bodies of "Generalmajor" (Major General) Friedrich Kussin, his driver "Gefreiter" (Corporal) Josef Willeke and interpreter "Unteroffiizier" (Non Commissioned Officer) Max Koester were reburied from the German "Heroes Cemetery" on the Zypendaal estate at Arnhem, alongside each other on the German Soldiers Cemetery in Ysselsteyn, The Netherlands.
Their remains rest in the graves 143, 144 and 144 on Row 6 in Plot BL.

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Unteroffiizier (Non Commissioned Officer) Willi Haupt was buried at this same cemetery in grave 079 on Row 4
in Plot M.
In Ministory 123 Revell presents the most likely scenarios which caused the confusion about the number of passengers in the General's car and about the burial of Willi Haupt away from the other occupants.
Over 30.000 Germans are buried in the Ysselsteyn cemetery.
This is an impression of their graves.
The General has the same headstone as any other German soldier ("Deutscher Soldat" in their language):
 


Grave BL 6 143


Grave BL 6 144


Grave BL 6 145


Grave M 4 79

Generalmajor Friedrich KUSSIN, born on 1MAR1895 in Aurich (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: Stab.P1.80-2-

Gefreiter Josef WILLEKE born on 4JUL1902 in Atteln (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk:
St.Abt.Kf.EuA.Abt26-2743-

Unteroffizier Max KOESTER, born on 20OCT1903 in Arnhem (the Netherlands).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: 1.Br.Bau.E.Btl2 -5595-

Unteroffizier Wilhelm HAUPT, born on 25JUN1900 in Muelheim (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: Gr.Kw.Kol.f.Betr.25

UPDATE 27AUG2018:
It is often suggested on online platforms as well as in books that General Kussin's mortal remains had been mutilated and that the Genenal was 'scalped indian-style' as written on page 299 of Karel Margry's "Market Garden, then and now".
We started an investigation into the trauma sustained by General Kussin on 17SEP1944 in Wolfheze in which we were only partly successful. Beforehand, we deemed scalping fairly unlikely because it wasn't in the nature of British troops in World War Two to mutilate enemy bodies in that fashion, there was no motive for it, and the General's scalp is still attached to his skull in the post mortem photos taken on the scene:

This agency obtained disinterment and reburial records from not open sources and is not at liberty to publish them here entirely.
We have analyzed them and found them only to contain dental records; albeit elaborate ones.
From the description of the General's teeth by members of the Royal Netherlands Army's Identification and Recovery Service on 13OCT1948 we "charted" the dental trauma as follows:

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This trauma suggests a high velocity impact from a bullet entering Kussin's head at the left cheek, which then travelled through his mouth to exit through the right side of the face shattering several teeth in its path.
The bullet was fired from a position slightly higher than where Kussin sat.
This at least explains the wound on the General's face as seen in the photos.
On an actual three-dimensional model these gun shot wounds and the trajectory of the bullet look like this:

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Gun shot trajectory from upper left to lower right  through face.
Teeth marked red indicate shattering.
Damage to the pink tooth in the upper left jaw by gun shot is tentative
as the record states that only fragments of the root remain in the jaw bone.

These wounds wouldn't necessarily be fatal and it is this agency's theory that the General died from other trauma suffered during the same incident. The records describe no other trauma and do not contain diagrams, drawings or photos. It describes the remains as in an "advanced state of decomposition" which made it impossible to find evidence of other wounds.
Lastly, the disinterment report has this entry: meaning "blonde hair of the head" indicating that whatever caused the remarkable cut in the General's cranium, did not keep him from taking at least part of his scalp into his grave:


General-Major Friedrich Kussin's grave in Ysselsteyn on 22AUG2018.

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