During the German occupation of The Netherlands, Major General Kussin was made the Stadtkommandant Arnheim, the commandant of the German garrison in Arnhem.

Generalmajor der Infanterie Friedrich Kussin
Born on the 1st of March 1895
in Aurich, Niedersachsen, Germany

On Sunday September 17th 1944 he had heard about the Airborne landings North West of the city for which he was responsible. He and his staff drove in their staff car, a camouflage painted Citroen, probably confiscated in France, to the Head Quarters of "SS-Haupsturmfuhrer" (Major) Josef 'Sepp' Krafft, commanding the SS-Panzer Grenadier Depot und Reserve Battaljon 16, an armored-infantry battalion. He arrived at Krafft's HQ in the Hotel Wolfheze at 17.15 hours. Krafft gave Kussin the latest intelligence and the Stadtkommandant asked of Krafft's Battalion to show all endurance possible for the upcoming battle. Kussin left via the same way he came, much to the reluctance of Krafft's staff.


Coming onto the junction of Wolfhezer Weg and Utrechtse Weg he and his staff ran into advancing British paratroopers.


This is the account of the officer in charge of the leading British platoon, Lieutenant James Arthur Stacey Cleminson
of No.5 Platoon, "B" Company, 3rd Parachute Battalion:


"The platoon had been selected to lead the 3rd Battalion's march to Arnhem, and for the first two hours they made good progress, scouting ahead of the main force. As they approached Battalion Krafft's blocking line east of Wolfheze, a German Citroen staff car suddenly appeared at a junction in between the platoon's positions, prompting these units to open fire with rifles and sten guns, killing all inside. So enthusiastic had been the firing that both vehicle and passengers were riddled with bullets and it took Cleminson's intervention to get his men to cease fire. This prize put the platoon on a high. Cleminson did not discover until after the war that his men had killed General Friedrich Kussin, the German commander of the Arnhem area. He had been visiting Krafft when he unwisely decided to return to the town and his own headquarters."

The account of another eye-witness, Staff-Sergeant John Oliver McGeough, a glider pilot with "C" Squadron, No.2 Wing:


"The following morning [Monday, September 18th 1944, Battle Detective.com]we continued towards Oosterbeek and at the junction of Wolfheze Weg and Utrechtseweg saw the first German dead. A staff car (a camouflaged Citroen) had come down the road from Wolfheze and had been shot up by men of the 2nd Parachute Btn at about 1600 hrs on Sunday afternoon. Major General Kussin, German field commander at Arnhem and three others in the car were on a reconnaissance mission and were unlucky to be spotted by the parachutists. Shortly after leaving the scene of the ambush we reached the Hartenstein Hotel at Oosterbeek and there I was to remain for the rest of the battle."

The shot-up car of the Ortskommandant Arnheim was filmed by members of the Army Film and Photograph Unit:

Location of the incident
This is the junction on a period map:

In the Netherlands Institute for Military History in The Hague in The Netherlands we found the Allied Intelligence translation of the 16th SS Armored Grenadier Reserve Battalion and Depot's "Kriegstagesbuch" (War Diary, or After Action Report).
On page 8 the violent death of Arnhem's Ortskommandant is described:

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This is what the junction looked like in 1973, when reporters of After The battle Magazine; visited the scene:

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Page 14 of After The Battle Magazine, Battle of Arnhem Special Edition

This is what the junction looks like today. The orange pylons in the middle of the junction indicate approximately where General Kussin's car was stopped in a hail of bullets:


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Significance of the incident
In 2014 computer scientists Marten Düring and Antal van den Bosch used the incident on “Kussin Junction” to describe multi-perspective event detection in texts by linking narratives referring to the same event based on references to location names.
On page 207 of their chapter 'Multi-perspective Event Detection in Texts Documenting the 1944 Battle of Arnhem" (in: "Text Mining. Theory and Applications of Natural Language Processing", Chris Biemann, Alexander Mehler (eds). Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-319-12654-8/978-3-319-12655-5)
they bring the essence of the event forward as follows:

"Consider the example depicted in Fig. 1. Each of the four source snippets 7 contains enough hints to group them together as referring to the same event: mentions of the location, the “Utrechtseweg” (Utrecht Road) near the village of “Wolfheze”, the date and time (as noted in a German war diary, translated to English by Allied Intelligence), and an annotated photo taken by an Allied photographer. Rather than merely providing parts of a story that can simply be concatenated, the aggregation of resources from different perspectives and a close look at what they depict helps us to reconstruct what happened. A key question with regard to this particular event is, why there was no attempt to arrest the high ranking Generalmajor Friedrich Kussin, who was in charge of all German troops in the Arnhem area. Additional research has revealed that Lieutenant Cleminson had simply failed to recognize Kussin.

7 The sources surrounding this example were researched by amateur historian Tom Timmermans (www.battledetective.com/Kussin_Junction.html) .
The event has also been described by professional historians in most historical reconstructions of Operation Market Garden including [4,263] (Cornelius Ryan (1995) A bridge too far, 1st edn. Simon & Schuster, New York)
The Dutch municipality of Renkum (Oosterbeek is within its jurisdiction) decided recently to refurbish "Kussin Junction" and install traffic lights.
This is what the crossroads of Wolfhezer Weg and Utrechtse Weg looks like today:

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Most publications have it that General Kussin had only two other passengers in his staff car on that fateful Sunday in 1944.
Historian Scott Revell has, however, established that next to the General, his driver Josef Willeke and interpreter Max Koester (himself born in Arnhem on 20OCT1903), another passenger rode along in the Citroen when it was shot up by British paras.
In "Airborne Magazine", the publication of the Association of Friends of the Airborne Museum Oosterbeek, Volume 3, No. 1, in the accompanying "Ministory 123", Part 2 of Revell's report titled "The death of a German General during the Battle of Arnhem" is published.
In it, Revell describes how he was able to purchase an obituary or "prayer card" of Unteroffiizier (Non Commissioned Officer) Willi Haupt who, according to the text on the card, had been the fourth occupant of the car.

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Front of the obituary card of NCO Willi Haupt

Pertaining to Haupt's military service and him being killed in action at Arnhem, the text on the card translates to:
"In the end he was deployed near Arnhem. Accompanying his commanding General he rode out on a reconnaissance mission together with two other comrades on the 17th of September 1944. He would not return from this journey. It was here where the deadly bullet hit him. The comrades succeeded in recovering the mortal remains and then they buried him with the General and both other soldiers on the Heroes Cemetery at Arnhem."
After World War Two ended, the bodies of "Generalmajor" (Major General) Friedrich Kussin, his driver "Gefreiter" (Corporal) Josef Willeke and interpreter "Unteroffiizier" (Non Commissioned Officer) Max Koester were reburied from the German "Heroes Cemetery" on the Zypendaal estate at Arnhem, alongside each other on the German Soldiers Cemetery in Ysselsteyn, The Netherlands.
Their remains rest in the graves 143, 144 and 144 on Row 6 in Plot BL.

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Unteroffiizier (Non Commissioned Officer) Willi Haupt was buried at this same cemetery in grave 079 on Row 4
in Plot M.
In Ministory 123 Revell presents the most likely scenarios which caused the confusion about the number of passengers in the General's car and about the burial of Willi Haupt away from the other occupants.
Over 30.000 Germans are buried in the Ysselsteyn cemetery.
This is an impression of their graves.
The General has the same headstone as any other German soldier ("Deutscher Soldat" in their language):

Grave BL 6 143

Grave BL 6 144

Grave BL 6 145

Grave M 4 79

Generalmajor Friedrich KUSSIN, born on 1MAR1895 in Aurich (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: Stab.P1.80-2-

Gefreiter Josef WILLEKE bron on 4JUL1902 in Atteln (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk:

Unteroffizier Max KOESTER, born on 20OCT1903 in Arnhem (the Netherlands).
(KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: 1.Br.Bau.E.Btl2 -5595-

Unteroffizier Wilhelm HAUPT, born on 25JUN1900 in Muelheim (Germany).
KIA at Oosterbeek 17SEP1944.
Unit: Feldkommandantur 642.
Text on identification disk: Gr.Kw.Kol.f.Betr.25


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